Tree Felling Glossery
Tree Services Glossary
- The cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. It’s a practice that ensures the health and safety of plants in an urban setting.
- A professional in the practice of arboriculture, which involves the study, management, and care of trees. Arborists are knowledgeable about the needs of trees and are trained and equipped to provide proper care.
- Aerial Lift
- A mechanical device used to elevate workers to hard-to-reach areas, often used in tree work. It provides access to taller trees for pruning, trimming, and removal purposes.
- Annual Ring
- The layer of wood growth put on a tree during a single growing season. By counting these rings, one can estimate the age of the tree.
- Adventitious Roots
- Roots that form from non-root tissue, such as stems or leaves. These roots are usually formed after the tree has been damaged or stressed.
- A part of a tree that grows out from the trunk or from a bough. Branches provide structure to the tree, and support leaves for photosynthesis.
- The protective outer covering of the trunk, branches, and roots of trees. It serves as a protective layer against environmental damage.
- A type of tree with wide, flat leaves, as opposed to conifers. Broadleaf trees are typically deciduous, shedding their leaves in the fall.
- A compact knob-like growth on a plant that develops into a leaf, flower, or shoot. Buds allow for the growth and expansion of the tree.
- A rounded knotty growth on a tree, giving an irregular grain when cut. Burls are often sought after for their unique patterns in woodwork.
- The upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms. The canopy provides shade and is a habitat for many types of insects and birds.
- A layer of tissue in plants that provides cells for plant growth. The cambium is responsible for creating the rings in a tree trunk which denote the tree’s age.
- A type of tree that produces cones and typically has needle-shaped leaves. Conifers are usually evergreen, keeping their foliage throughout the year.
- The top part of a tree, which includes the branches and leaves. The health and size of the crown can give an indication of the overall health of the tree.
- A type of fungal disease that causes damage to the bark of trees. Cankers cause a weakening of the tree and can eventually lead to its death if not treated.
- A type of tree that sheds its leaves annually. Deciduous trees are known for their fall foliage, as their leaves turn vibrant colors before dropping to the ground.
- A period in an organism’s life cycle when growth, development, and physical activity are temporarily stopped. This is a survival strategy for many plants, including trees, to survive the winter season.
- Drip Line
- An imaginary boundary line that defines the outermost edge of a tree’s canopy, where water drips from and onto the ground. It’s important for understanding the extent of a tree’s root system.
- Parts of a tree that are dead but still attached to the organism. Deadwood can be a hazard as it can fall and cause injury or damage.
- Disease Resistance
- The ability of a tree or plant to prevent or recover from a plant disease. Disease resistance is a key factor in tree selection for many landscapers and gardeners.
- A type of tree that retains its leaves throughout the year. Evergreens provide year-round color and coverage.
- A community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. Trees play a crucial role in many ecosystems by providing oxygen, improving soil stability, and providing habitats for wildlife.
- Referring to plants native or restricted to a certain country or area. Endemic trees are an important part of a region’s biodiversity.
- Referring to species that are not native to the area. Exotic trees can sometimes become invasive, outcompeting native species.
- Epicormic Shoot
- A shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a plant. Epicormic shoots can result in rapid growth of new branches and leaves.
- The process of cutting down a tree, usually by making a precise cut at the base of the trunk. Felling is done for various reasons, including land clearing, timber harvesting, or to remove a tree that’s dead, diseased, or posing a risk to its surroundings.
- A large area dominated by trees. Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high.
- A large, divided leaf. In both common usage and botanical nomenclature, the leaves of ferns are referred to as fronds and some botanists restrict the term to this group.
- The seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are how trees spread their seeds.
- Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. Some types of fungi can cause disease in trees.
- The process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. For a seed to germinate, it needs certain conditions, including water and the right temperature.
- A horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. This is commonly used to propagate trees with desirable characteristics.
- Grass is typically short plants with long, narrow leaves, growing from the base. A common kind of grass is used to cover the ground in a lawn and other places.
- Ground Cover
- A type of plant that grows over an area of ground. Ground cover can provide protection of the topsoil from erosion and drought.
- Growth Ring
- Also known as an annual ring or tree ring, it is a concentric layer of wood, shell, or other material from the growth of an organism. In trees, these can be seen as a series of rings when a tree is cut.
- Wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen.
- Any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume. Some trees, such as the Neem tree, have medicinal uses.
- The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism. Trees provide habitats for a variety of animals.
- The organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms. It’s crucial for the fertility of the soil.
- The result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction. Hybrids can be bred in nurseries to create trees with desirable characteristics.
- The part of a plant that contains its flowers. In trees, this can be a spectacular display, such as the cherry blossom.
- Invasive Species
- A species that is not native to a specific location, and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
- The application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall.
- The part of a plant stem between two of the nodes from which leaves emerge. The length of the internodes can determine the height and shape of a tree.
- A small arthropod animal that has six legs and generally one or two pairs of wings. Insects can both benefit and harm trees. Some pollinate flowers, while others can cause significant damage.
- An area of land overgrown with dense forest and tangled vegetation, typically in the tropics. Jungles are often areas with a high level of biodiversity.
- Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. They are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, and to the mountains of Central America.
- A long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae.
- Japanese Beetle
- A species of scarab beetle. The adult measures 15 mm (0.6 in) in length and 10 mm (0.4 in) in width, has iridescent copper-colored elytra and a green thorax and head. It is not very destructive in Japan, where it is controlled by natural predators, but in America it is a serious pest of about 200 species of plants.
- The type genus of the family Juglandaceae, the walnuts. This genus consists of 21 species. The wood of the walnut tree is highly prized for its hardness, grain and color, and is used for furniture and other applications.
- A hard, compact portion of a tree where a branch was once attached. Knots can affect the strength and integrity of the wood, and are often seen as imperfections in lumber.
- A group of plants in the pea family. In some parts of the world, particularly the southeastern United States, kudzu is considered an invasive species that can quickly cover trees and other vegetation.
- A fruit-bearing tree native to China. The kiwi or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.
- The inner, usually edible part of a nut or seed. It is also a synonym for seed.
- A type of evergreen tree native to the South Pacific. Kauri trees are among the world’s mightiest trees, growing to over 50 meters tall, with trunk girths up to 16 meters, and living for over 2,000 years.
- A large primary branch of a tree. Limbs are crucial for the tree’s structure and the process of photosynthesis.
- The principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.
- A simple slow-growing plant that typically forms a low crust-like, leaf-like, or branching growth on rocks, walls, and trees.
- A part of the trunk or a large branch of a tree that has fallen or been cut off.
- Wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well.
- A material (such as decaying leaves, bark, or compost) spread around or over a plant to enrich or insulate the soil.
- A small flowerless green plant that lacks true roots, growing in low carpets or rounded cushions in damp habitats and reproducing by means of spores released from stalked capsules.
- A type of tree in the genus Acer, found in the northern hemisphere. Maples are known for their distinctive leaf shape and their sap, which can be made into syrup.
- A fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic manner.
- The agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
- A place where plants are grown for sale, transplanting, or experimentation.
- A fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In a general context, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts.
- A point of intersection of leaf veins or edges.
- A sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
- The process by which a non-native plant spreads into the wild and its new environment.
- A tree of the genus Quercus, bearing acorns and having lobed leaves. Oaks are common in many temperate forests and are valuable for their hard, durable wood.
- A species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Its fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil.
- An intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are grown for commercial production.
- Organic Matter
- Matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.
- The layer of foliage in a forest canopy. It includes the crowns of the tallest trees. The overstory influences the types of organisms able to live in the understory or forest floor by controlling the amount of light that reaches lower levels and by dropping leaves and other material that may become nutrients in the soil.
- The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods with the aid of chlorophyll pigments. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
- The practice of selectively removing branches from a tree. Pruning can be done to remove dead branches, to shape the tree, or to improve the health of the tree.
- Palm Tree
- A type of tree in the family Arecaceae, which is found in tropical climates. Palm trees are known for their distinctive shape, with a tall, slender trunk and a crown of large, feathered or fan-shaped leaves.
- A type of tree in the genus Pinus, in the family Pinaceae. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees. They are valued for their timber and wood pulp, and for their various edible seeds.
- A type of plant that lives for more than two years. The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials.
- The Latin name for the oak tree genus. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name “oak” also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks).
- Quaking Aspen
- A deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America. The quaking aspen is so named because the leaves of the tree quake or tremble in the wind. This is due to their flat petioles which reduce aerodynamic drag on the trunk and branches.
- A small, deciduous tree that bears a pome fruit, similar in appearance to a pear, and bright golden-yellow when mature. The fruit is edible, and is often used in cooking.
- Quickset Hedge
- A type of hedge created by planting live whitethorn (common hawthorn) cuttings directly into the earth. Once planted, these cuttings root and form new plants, creating a dense barrier.
- A type of lycopodiophyte in the family Isoetaceae, order Isoetales. Quillworts are mostly aquatic or semi-aquatic, and their grass-like leaves can photosynthesize like those of land plants.
- The part of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. Roots provide support, absorb water and nutrients, and store food.
- A solid or highly viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury. The resin acts as a bandage protecting the plant from invading insects and pathogens.
- Radial Growth
- The growth of a tree in its diameter. This growth is typically measured in the increase in girth of the tree’s trunk.
- A continuously growing horizontal underground stem that puts out lateral shoots and adventitious roots at intervals.
- Also known as girdling, it’s the process of removing a ring of bark from a tree. This can be used as a method for killing the tree, as it prevents the flow of nutrients and water up the trunk.
- An embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.
- The fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant. These cells transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.
- The base part of a tree that remains standing on the ground after the tree has been felled. Stumps can be removed by grinding or with chemicals that speed up wood decay.
- To produce new growth, such as leaves or buds. In trees, sprouts can grow from the roots, stump, or even the trunk itself.
- The practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing).
- A perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old.
- Wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Timber is often used for construction purposes but also has many other uses.
- The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves.
- A slender, coiling plant organ which attaches itself to or twines round some other body in order to support the plant.
- The horticultural practice of training perennial plants by clipping the foliage and twigs of trees, shrubs and subshrubs to develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, whether geometric or fanciful.
- The layer of vegetation beneath the main canopy of a forest. The understory plays an important role in forest ecosystems, providing habitat for wildlife and biodiversity.
- Umbrella Tree
- A common name for several species of trees, including Schefflera actinophylla, a tree native to tropical rainforests, and Magnolia tripetala, a tree native to the southeastern United States. The name comes from the large leaves or overall shape of the tree, which can resemble an umbrella.
- The small trees and plants that grow in the open spaces of forests where enough light reaches the ground to support their growth. It can also refer to the vegetation that grows beneath the canopy of the forest.
- The process or action of pulling a plant including its roots out of the ground. In the context of trees, uprooting usually refers to the action of a tree being pulled out of the ground by natural forces, such as wind or erosion.
- An organism that consists of a single cell. This contrasts with a multicellular organism, which consists of multiple cells. In the context of trees, unicellular organisms like bacteria and fungi can affect the health of a tree.
- Vascular Plant
- A plant that has specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. Vascular plants include all living gymnosperms, angiosperms, and ferns.
- A type of plant that climbs or grows groundward or across surfaces. Some vines can harm trees by blocking light or becoming too heavy for the tree to support.
- Plant life or total plant cover as the cover of plants present in an area. Vegetation is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics.
- The induction of a plant’s flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent. After vernalization, plants have acquired the ability to flower.
- A taxonomic rank in botany, below that of species and subspecies, but above that of form. This term can be abbreviated to var.
- The hard, fibrous structural tissue that is commonly found in the stems and roots of trees. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression.
- Wild animals collectively; the native fauna (and sometimes flora) of a region. Trees provide habitat, food and shelter for wildlife.
- A plant considered undesirable, unattractive, or troublesome, especially one that grows where it is not wanted and often in such a way as to inhibit the growth and development of other plants.
- Water Table
- The level below which the ground is saturated with water. The water table can influence the types of plants that can grow in an area.
- A phenomenon where trees are uprooted or broken by wind. Windthrow can be a significant issue in forest management.
- The vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem.
- A species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
- A method of landscaping that uses plants that are well adapted to the local area and are drought-resistant. Xeriscaping is becoming more popular as a way of saving water at home.
- A graft obtained from a member of one species and transplanted to that of another species. Xenografts are often used in horticulture and agriculture.
- A yellow or brown carotenoid plant pigment which causes the autumn colors of leaves.
- A coniferous tree that has red berrylike fruits, and most parts of which are highly poisonous. Yews are linked with folklore and symbolism.
- The amount of fruit or crops that a tree or area of land produces. The yield can be influenced by factors such as soil quality, weather conditions, and the presence of pests and diseases.
- A common name for several trees and may refer to a number of different tree species with yellow wood.
- A genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae. Its 40–50 species are notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal panicles of white or whitish flowers.
- A common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions.
- A genus of six species of deciduous trees in the elm family Ulmaceae, native to southern Europe, and Asia. They vary in size from shrubs (Z. sicula) to large trees up to 35 m (115 ft) tall (Z. carpinifolia).
- In the context of gardening and agriculture, a zone refers to a geographic area defined by hardiness, or the ability of plants to withstand winter temperatures. The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map is the standard by which gardeners and growers can determine which plants are most likely to thrive at a location.
- A term used in the 18th and 19th century for an organism that is unclassifiable as either an animal or plant. More recent uses of the term refer to plants that have some animal-like characteristics, like sensitivity to touch.
- An essential mineral for plants, which is included in many enzymes. It is needed in small amounts, but the deficiency can lead to poor growth.
- The initial cell formed when two gamete cells are joined by means of sexual reproduction. In multicellular organisms, it is the earliest developmental stage of the embryo.
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